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Tautology and Redundancy in Business Writing
What Is Tautology and Redundancy?Business texts must be as precise and concise as possible. To achieve this, avoid not only unnecessary detail but also redundancy and tautology.
Redundancy. Redundancy refers to words that don't add anything. For example:
- The font
thatJanet liked is unavailable.
- We need to try the new system
Tautology. Tautology refers to a term that expresses an idea twice. For example:
- She commutes
back and forthto London.
(The term "back and forth" is redundant because it is implicit in the word "commutes.")
Keep Your Texts As Precise As PossibleEvery time you use a word that adds nothing to your message, you lose a tiny bit of good will and credibility. Eventually, you become "The Waffler" and that isn't a cool Batman villain. It's a bad thing. Remember this: Unless you are the boss, no one really cares what you've got to say, and they're not going to spend much time reading your correspondence (especially if it's long). You must strive to get your message across in as few words as possible.
"The length of your letter is directly proportional to the speed of your readers' skim-reading."All that said, avoiding tautology and redundancy is not really about saving your readers' time. It's more about showcasing your proficiency with words. If you can write sentences with no redundant words, your writing prowess becomes apparent – even to those who don't know what redundant words are. So, it's more about your credibility.
(BBC Monitoring editor Ashley Brewer)
(BBC Monitoring editor Ashley Brewer)
Some words in a sentence add nothing to the meaning, and these are the ones you should look to eliminate. You could do this as you're going along, but that might stifle your creativity and flow. In my experience, redundant words are best removed as part of the proofreading process. Look at these two sentences:
"Given a choice between two theories, take the one that is funnier."
"Given a choice between two theories, take the funnier one."
Yes, well chuffed. I've managed to delete "which is" without any loss of meaning. I'm really pleased. The sentence flows much better too, which is an added bonus!
Hang on. I just said "added bonus!" Do I really need the word "added"?
"Bonus" usually means "a payment or gift added to what is usual or expected." So, actually, there's no need for me to use "added." The notion of "added" is already included in the word "bonus." Therefore, "added" can be deleted without any loss of meaning. Bonus! Here are a few common terms with deletable words:
back and forth
Sometimes, redundant words are words that are just not needed.
Fetch the book
However, sometimes, words are redundant because they say the same thing as something you've already said. When this happens, the redundant words are said to be tautological. The term with the idea expressed twice is called a tautology. For example:
- He left at 3 a.m. in the morning. (This is a tautology because "a.m." means "in the morning.")
- In our assessment, we think he is alive. ("In our assessment" means "we think.")
- Present a short summary. (Argument: Summaries are always short. Delete short. Counter-argument: Are they? You could have a 5-page summary. Is that short?)
- She died from a fatal dose of heroin. (Argument: Of course it was a fatal dose. That's why she died. Counter-argument: She could have died from a non-fatal dose of heroin, i.e., it wouldn't have killed most people.)
- Enter your PIN number in the ATM machine. (Argument: PIN means Personal Identification Number. You don't need to repeat the word number. ATM means Automated Teller Machine. You don't need to repeat the word machine. Counter-argument: True, but don't you think PIN and ATM have become words in their own right? In the interest of clarity, it's best to leave the redundancy in.)
This next point is important. Redundant words aren't just the odd word here and there (as in the common terms above). Often, redundant words are whole sentences or paragraphs that repeat something you've already said. Get 'em deleted. Keep the "The Waffler" at bay.
"The best writing is precise and concise."
Format, Word Choice, and GrammarThe effectiveness of your document will also be determined by the following:
- The format
- The titles and paragraphs
- Your diction (the types of word you use)
- Your word choice
- Your grammar
Critical Thinking TestAre you good at spotting the biases, fallacies, and other cognitive effects? Can you spot when statistics have been manipulated? Can you read body language? Well, let's see!
- This test has questions.
- A correct answer is worth 5 points.
- You can get up to 5 bonus points for a speedy answer.
- Some questions demand more than one answer. You must get every part right.
- Beware! Wrong answers score 0 points.
- 🏆 If you beat one of the top 3 scores, you will be invited to apply for the Hall of Fame.
- Do you disagree with something on this page?
- Did you spot a typo?
- Do you know a bias or fallacy that we've missed?