List of Common Cognitive Effects with Examples
- Barnum Effect The Barnum Effect occurs when people believe that general descriptions are accurate descriptions that relate to them. This occurs most commonly when describing personality traits.
- Broken Biscuit Effect The Broken Biscuit Effect occurs when a person invents an irrational justification for their actions. Even though the person knows the justification is irrational, it still provides the impetus to carry out the action. It derives its name from the irrational notion that "broken biscuits have no calories", which a dieting person will cite before consuming a broken biscuit (or one with slightly imperfect edging) or breaking one before eating it.
- Compromise Effect When choosing something, the Compromise Effect is the tendency to avoid an extreme choice. Avoiding an extreme choice is often due to the common perception that extremes attract risk. As the middle ground feels safer, decisions which exclude extremes are made far more readily.
- Dunning Kruger Effect The Dunning-Kruger Effect is the tendency for unskilled people to make poor decisions or reach wrong conclusions, but their incompetence prevents them from recognising their mistakes. It links well with the old adage: "Ignorance is bliss." In uncovering this tendency, Justin Kruger and David Dunning of Cornell University were partly influenced by this observation:
- Endowment Effect The Endowment Effect describes the tendency to place more value on something you own than something you don't.
- Halo Effect The Halo Effect is the tendency to judge someone positively because of a known positive trait. This can occur regardless of whether the judgement is related to the trait.
- Hyperbolic Discounting Effect Hyperbolic discounting is the tendency to show a preference for a reward that arrives sooner rather than later. Studies show that we are likely to discount the value of the later reward more as the length of the delay increases.
- Isolation Effect The Isolation Effect (also known as the Von Restorff Effect) is the tendency to recall something that stands out in a group and afford it more weighting than its peers. It is named after German psychologist Hedwig Von Restorff, who first documented it in 1933.
- Ostrich Effect The Ostrich Effect is the tendency to ignore a dangerous or risky situation. This bias takes its name from the widely held, though completely incorrect, belief that an ostrich will bury its head in the sand when faced with danger. People will demonstrate this kind of behaviour by blotting out a problem from the mind instead of tackling the situation which threatens them.
- Rhyme As Reason Effect The Rhyme As Reason Effect is a cognitive bias that causes a rhyming statement, observation or saying to be judged more accurate than an equally valid non-rhyming one.
Read more about the Barnum Effect and see some examples
Read more about the Broken Biscuit Effect and see some examples
Read more about the Compromise Effect and see some examples
"Ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge." (Charles Darwin)
Read more about the Dunning Kruger Effect and see some examples
Read more about the Endowment Effect and see some examples
Read more about the Halo Effect and see some examples
Read more about the Hyperbolic Discounting Effect and see some examples
Read more about the Isolation Effect and see some examples
Read more about the Ostrich Effect and see some examples
Read more about the Rhyme As Reason Effect and see some examples
A list of cognitive fallacies with examples